From his Daily Telegraph column, 11th June 1999. I suspect that Michael Wharton was the greatest political writer of my lifetime. SIG Continue reading
by David D’Amato
According to USA Today, “A gunman killed two American military advisers with shots to the back of the head Saturday [February 25] inside a heavily guarded ministry building.” The story notes that the Taliban quickly claimed responsibility for the killings and cited them as “retaliation for the Quran burnings” at an American military base. Continue reading
by D.J. Webb
A MINIMUM WAGE OR A FREE ECONOMY?
The Conservative and Liberal Democrat halves of our ruling coalition government are engaged in a debate over employment legislation, with some Conservatives calling for less regulation of employment and also for smaller companies to be exempt from minimum-wage legislation. Libertarians oppose state regulation, although I think it would be fair to say that libertarians are seeking a more holistic, workable approach than simply deleting minimum-wage laws. The reason for this is that, in the absence of welfare reform, abolishing the minimum wage will have the result of decreasing yet further any incentive for the unemployed to find work. I am not convinced that removing the minimum wage—especially one set at current rates—will have a significant positive impact on the employment market in the absence of a broader package of measures to free the economy. Continue reading
Living very near as I do, as the LA’s Director of Northern Affairs, to these places which the UN chooses to highlight today, I’m not certain that they have their facts right. Yes, the “War On Drugs” has been lost, and yes, some places near here are a bit , er, what we’d call “scallyish”.You’d not want to wander about for more than a few minutes alone at 1.00-am in some Liverpool suburbs. But then, you could say that for Peckham or Brixton or Havana or Salisbury/Southern Rhodesia: or even Rhiyadh or Pyong-Yang – the latter two because the State will be after you as well as the sundry scallies.
But I don’t think we yet have here in The North the results of drug-turf-war-beheadings hanging from buildings the following morning as they do in, say, Mexico. Mexico is a bit nearer to the UN’s adopted home. Perhaps some of its dictatroids might like to address their evidently vast revenues towards that place first? Pot calls kettle black I think.
I spotted: L F06TER (a sort of jeep thing) … RI0 (can’t remember the car, fairly big but not that big) …X27 EMA … oh, and I almost forgot NA51YMA (It’s a silver Lexus) … (her hubby has a couple of Bangaldeshi takeaways near here.) I also see many K155 (…) which must be intra-partner gifts of some kind. Truly, the North West of England is a trainspotter’s paradise. Perhaps it’s something in the water.
Perhaps I begin to understand what gets up the noses of leftoNazis (which is to say: all lefties, pursuant to the Godwin stuff of the other day.)
I do wonder, and care about, how individuals would aspire to behave in a classical-liberal-minimal-statist civilisation. This is the closest to a truly libertarian one that that we practical guys can hope might be achieved, sometime soon before the Next Glaciation. I wonder if the neoplastic rate of sprouting of these sorts of things, is inversely proportional to the absolute amount of liberty available in the UK.
And lastly, why the **** does anyone think that others might want to know, on the road, who the **** you are? And that you are actually there, now?
Sword of Damascus
by Richard Blake
Published by Hodder & Stoughton
Hardback Edition: June 2011
Paperback Edition: January 2012 432pp, £19.99
Age has not entirely wearied Brother Aelric of Jarrow and the years have not yet condemned him to a sedate and sedentary lifestyle. Continue reading
by Sean Gabb
I saw this, the other day, in Sandwich, just a few miles from where I live. What would he have thought of the ruling class England now has?
by D.J. Webb
I read a story in the Daily Telegraph today that reminded me somewhat of my experience in Gatwick airport last year. A man who, incidentally happened to be the creator of the Fireman Sam children’s character, made a comment while going through security checks about a Muslim woman in a veil who had not been subject to the same level of checks that he had. His comment was not a racial attack, or a diatribe on the subject of immigration or multiculturalism, but the following: “if I was wearing this scarf over my face, I wonder what would happen.” Continue reading
A very enjoyable read of an alternative history diverging in 1940 from ours. Centering around the Churchill biographist Dr Markham who is caught up in a plot for the future of the British Empire. The economic changes are the most fun: maglev trains in 1959 with roads in ruin, decentralized electricty, airships, heated pavements and famous economic and historc figures in new roles!
by Kevin Carson
In a recent post at the UK’s Libertarian Alliance Blog, Director Sean Gabb points out that “government charters, grants personhood to, mandates sales for, creates price floors for, regulates industries to eliminate competition for, allows former employees to regulate their own, responds to lobbying by, bails out, subsidizes, [and] is comprised of politicians whose campaigns are financed by … corporations.” Whew! So in light of this, “Corporations should be policed by … ?” Continue reading
by Sean Gabb
The Morning Star has a long and honourable record of reviewing the novels of Richard Blake. SIG
By Matt Coward, The Morning Star, 16th October 2011
The Sword Of Damascus (Hodder, £19.99) is Richard Blake’s fourth book about Aelric, a 7th-century Briton whose natural cunning, charm and ruthlessness have led him from desperate beginnings to the highest councils of the dying Roman empire. Now extremely old, he’s hiding from his many enemies in a Jarrow monastery until a series of misadventures finds him in Damascus, caught in the struggle between the retreating empire and the rising might of Islam. But even old and half-blind, Aelric is no man’s pawn for very long. It would be hard to over-praise this extraordinary series, a near-perfect blend of historical detail and atmosphere with the plot of a conspiracy thriller, vivid characters, high philosophy and vulgar comedy.
by Kevin Carson
Most participants in online debates are familiar with Godwin’s Law: “As an online discussion grows longer, the probability of a comparison involving Nazis or Hitler approaches 1.” The implicit corollary, of course, is that the first person to descend to such a comparison automatically forfeits the debate. Oddly enough, though, I don’t remember electing anyone named Godwin to legislate for me. And more importantly, that corollary is — or can be — quite stupid. Continue reading
“A Servant when He Reigneth”
by Rudyard Kipling
…but a Servant when He Reigneth
Is Confusion to the end.
His feet are swift to tumult,
His hands are slow to toil,
His ears are deaf to reason,
His lips are loud in broil,
He knows no use for power,
Except to show his might,
He gives no heed to judgement,
Unless it prove him right.
Because he served a master,
Before his Kingship came,
And hid in all disaster
Behind his Master’s name,
So, when his Folly opens
The unnecessary Hells,
A Servant when He Reigneth
Throws the blame on someone else.
His vows are lightly spoken,
His faith is hard to bind,
His trust is easy broken,
He fears his fellow-kind.
The nearest mob will move him
To break the pledge he gave –
Oh, a Servant when He Reigneth
Is more than ever slave!
by Keith Preston
Note: I’m very impressed by the work of Keith Preston. I came up with the phrase “Enemy Class” to describe the enemies of bourgeois civilisation. Our Blogmaster uses a long circumlocution. Ian B has his preferred terminology. I suggest we should adopt the Prestonism of “totalitarian humanists.” We are all talking about more or less the same group of people.
Totalitarian humanists are people whose legitimising ideology is cultural leftism, and who are imposing this via a police state at home and military force abroad. They have merged with a much older corporate elite. They have massively enlarged the military and police arms of the State. Until about 30 years ago, they were denouncing these three forces. But they have now spread their ideology to their former enemies, and thereby cleansed them of evil. They seek absolute and unaccountable power, and the consequent destruction of ancient liberties and intermediary institutions, by insisting on the absolute goodness of their legitimising ideology and the absolute evil of the various “hates” they are combating. They control business and education and the media, and politics and law and administration, and every medical bureaucracy. They are embedded in every main religion except Islam. They are absolutely supreme in every transnational bureaucracy.
As an aside, I suggest that the European Union is evil not because it is run by Frenchmen and Germans, or whatever. Let’s be reasonable – rule from Paris or Berlin would not in itself be catastrophic. It isn’t evil because our own liberal institutions are being destroyed – these have already been destroyed. It is evil because it is another place from which the totalitarian humanists can exercise absolute and unaccountable power to reshape us as they desire.
A good British example of totalitarian humanism is the Stephen Lawrence circus. Two men faced 20 years of administrative and legal harassment and media vilification. They were finally brought to trial and convicted on the basis of what looks like fabricated evidence. One of them could only be tried after the very ancient protection against double jeopardy had been stripped out of the Common Law. Had this been done to Sinn Fein/IRA terrorists, there would – rightly – have been howls of outrage. In this case, the entire ruling class set up a squeal of delight. Nothing – certainly not due process or even common decency – can be allowed to stand in the way of crushing racism, homophobia, sexism, xenophobia, or any other excuse for not joining in the Potemkin love feast of the totalitarian humanists.
Other examples are the persecution of Emma West, the persecution of Christian hoteliers who won’t rent out rooms to homosexuals, refusal to let devout Christians foster children, denial of NHS treatment to people who live other than as directed, the attempted use of sporting associations to
brainwash the white working classes. These really are all examples of the same war against bourgeois civilisation.
I could say more. But here is the essay. Read and consider its implications for our own strategy. [SIG] Continue reading
by Robert Henderson
Note: The key quote here is that “the [Leveson] Inquiry is not intended to be more than PR exercise and, as with virtually any government instigated inquiry, any evidence which may seriously damage those with power, wealth or influence is to be suppressed. It is scandalous.” It may be that these things were manipulated with more finesse in the past. On the other hand, it may just be that the Internet now lets us see gross manipulations that would once have gone unreported by the media.
I’ve paid less attention to the Leveson Inquiry than I perhaps should have. Even so, it appears reasonable to suppose that its purpose is to soften us up for something approaching a formally licensed and censored media in this country, while making sure that no media person of any standing with the ruling class should suffer harm.
- There is no doubt that Piers Morgan admitted in 1997 to obtaining information from the Police in a manner that suggests impropriety.
- There is no doubt that he testified in 2011 that he had never paid for information from the Police.
- Surely, he should be asked to clarify in what circumstances he received information from the Police in 1997.
Robert Henderson’s trench battles with the British State are often hard to follow. But this possible discrepancy between what Mr Morgan has said on two occasions is easily grasped. [SIG] Continue reading
by Emma Goldman (1940)
The individual is the true reality in life. A cosmos in himself, he does not exist for the State, nor for that abstraction called “society,” or the “nation,” which is only a collection of individuals. Man, the individual, has always been and, necessarily is the sole source and motive power of evolution and progress. Civilization has been a continuous struggle of the individual or of groups of individuals against the State and even against “society,” that is, against the majority subdued and hypnotized by the State and State worship. Man’s greatest battles have been waged against man-made obstacles and artificial handicaps imposed upon him to paralyze his growth and development. Human thought has always been falsified by tradition and custom, and perverted false education in the interests of those who held power and enjoyed privileges. In other words, by the State and the ruling classes. This constant incessant conflict has been the history of mankind.
by Stephan Kinsella
Down with anti-market “anarchists”
There’s a lot of noise being made by the left- and mutualist-libertarian crowd about the arrest of some so-called “anarchists” (scare quotes because anti-market “anarchists” are not real anarchists, i.e. anarcho-libertarians) and seizure by the police of “anarchist” and anarchist literature, including some by mutualist-libertarian Kevin Carson. From what I can gather from various incoherent media and blog descriptions, an “anarchist” group called the RNC Welcoming Committee was going to protest the Republican convention in Minnesota; some market anarchists tried to join up to make some inroads with the commie “anarchists”, and some Ron Paul supporters. For some reason the cops made arrests and seized literature, which included some of Carson’s writings. Continue reading
“England was a much better place when ruled by a committee of aristocratic landlords. All experience of the past 127 years has shown that ordinary people are not to be trusted with public affairs. They have consistently failed to see through the rogues and charlatans who have progressively monopolised English politics since the Third Reform Act, and have been too numerous to feel or be exposed to any sense of personal shame at this failure. The only way that England can now be saved is by a Caesaristic dictatorship, after which a restored Constitution will restrict the vote and access to elected office to persons of good character.”
Evaluate and critically discuss this anonymous, though wholly sound, comment. Candidates are encouraged to make some reference to the failed reforms that Sulla made to the Roman Constitution, and to the more thoroughgoing reconstuction by Julius Caesar, and to the final settlement by Augustus. Additional marks will be given to those candidates who recognise Gladstone as the proto-Blairite wrecker that he was. Candidates who use American spellings, or make any reference to the politics or history of the United States, will be failed without right of appeal.
HO11Y SF … S3VVY … P11KY D … BIG 2283 … ROG11E … N1’5 NAT (“Nat” was probably “Natalie” and very clearly the astonishingly hour-glass-shaped blonde female chattel of someone clearly called “Nigel”, who was not actually present at the time…the vehicle was a black Merc 500SLK or something similar) … S1’5 TOY… (seen shortly after the previous one…) … S44MY B …
When, in a family I was teaching the son and daughter of, I asked the dad what he was getting the boy for his 18th, he replied “a personal number plate”. “Why?” I asked. “On t’road, people will know who he is, then”.
by Sean Gabb
In the past few days, I’ve had this alleged quote from Kark Marx sent to me about a dozen times:
“Owners of capital will stimulate the working class to buy more and more of expensive goods, houses and technology, pushing them to take more and more expensive credits, until their debt becomes unbearable. The unpaid debt will lead to bankruptcy of banks, which will have to be nationalised, and the State will have to take the road which will eventually lead to communism.”
It’s followed by the alleged attribution: “Karl Marx, Das Kapital, 1867″ Continue reading
by Frank Borzellieri
The capacity on the part of liberals to devise outlandish policies intended to combat crime is rivaled in stupidity only by their propensity to avoid true solutions. Gun control has always been the pet panacea of those who possess neither the desire nor the backbone to confront the true and obvious cause of gun violence: criminals and a lenient justice system. Rather than confront this bane head on, gun controllers have striven to crack down on their favorite whipping boys, the guns themselves. Continue reading
by the Rev. Philip Foster
I have written about this before but it bears repeating. When you were at school and were doing chemistry, I hope you were paying attention at least to the simple test used for detecting CO2. The gas was tested for by bubbling it through lime water (a solution of Ca(OH)2 otherwise known as Calcium hydroxide). Continue reading
by David Webb
The news that the parents of Gary Dobson and David Norris, recently convicted for having “murdered” Stephen Lawrence, may face charges into whether they perjured themselves in court by giving their sons alibis strikes me as rather alarming. Continue reading
von Sean Gabb
Vorteilhaft auch für die angeschlagene bürgerliche Zivilisation
Die übliche englische Antwort auf den schottischen Nationalismus ist, ihn zu ignorieren, ihn als Irritation zu betrachten oder ihn unter Erinnerung an die gemeinsame Geschichte herunterzureden oder den Wert englischer Subventionen hervorzuheben und darauf zu warten, dass sich in der Debatte der gesunde Menschenverstand durchsetzt. Ich behaupte, dass keine dieser Reaktionen angemessen ist. Keine davon berücksichtigt, dass England und Schottland verschiedene Nationen sind und dass der lauteste und aktivste Teil der schottischen Nation entschieden hat, dass die derzeitige Union der Nationen nicht im schottischen Interesse ist. Das bedeutet nicht notwendig, dass die Auflösung der Union unausweichlich ist. Es macht sie jedoch erstrebenswert. Schottland mag unter der Union gelitten haben, oder auch nicht. Aber die Union hat viel dazu beigetragen, England an den Punkt des Zusammenbruchs zu bringen und es scheint mir vernünftig zu sagen, dass die Sicherheit Englands niemals gewährleistet werden kann, solange sich schottische Mitglieder im Westminster-Parlament befinden.
by Kevin Carson
David Goodway. Anarchist Seeds Beneath the Snow: Left-Libertarian Thought and British Writers from William Morris to Colin Ward (PM Press edition, 2012).
I’ll start by saying I found this a very engaging read. I learned a lot of interesting new things about people whose thought I had already encountered, like Morris, Huxley and Orwell, and developed a strong appreciation for those — like Wilde — with whom I was less familiar. Continue reading
Dr. Sean Gabb, An Interview
by L. Neil Smith
Attribute to L. Neil Smith’s The Libertarian Enterprise
L. NEIL SMITH: Sean Gabb, any attempt to introduce you adequately toour readers would end up as long as the rest of this interview. Youare a man of many accomplishments, and there are plenty of things thislong-overdue discussion might be about. From my viewpoint, forexample, you are British libertarianism. Continue reading
Some thoughts on electric cars. “The Leaf in Winter”
by the Rev. Philip Foster
1. Ratio of power to weight for the electric ‘fuel’ compared to petrol is about 1:10. ie the battery weight and volume is ten times that of a tank of fuel for the same mileage. Continue reading
An undeniable problem…
It is difficult to deny that obesity is a problem in England today. An apparent inability to control one’s body size and shape is cited by millions as something that diminishes their enjoyment in life. We only live once, and a life spent battling “flab” can only be described as a wasted life. It is clearly far from ideal to look back in one’s 40s or 50s, as many do, on what should have been the best years of one’s life, knowing that one’s own lifestyle choices spoiled those years. For this reason, propaganda by the government and healthcare professionals on obesity and lifestyles is undeniably relevant, albeit objectionable from the point of view of individual freedom. Continue reading
by Daniel Worden
There’s been plenty of argument over proposed federal regulations requiring employers to offer health plans covering contraception for women. But few people bring up the basic question: Why is it considered normal for your boss to determine your healthcare options in the first place? Continue reading
by Kevin Carson
In a recent column, I referred to Auburn University Professor Roderick Long’s concept of “conflationism”:
“Left-conflationism is the error of treating the evils of existing corporatist capitalism as though they constituted an objection to a freed market. Right-conflationism is the error of treating the virtues of a freed market as though they constituted a justification of the evils of existing corporatist capitalism.” Continue reading
FAB1o X…ROG11E…T4 DAD…B16 ROB…X2 EMA…it seems often that several times more men than woman are vain.
Oh, and just seen…YO0 5HOE…can’t tell the sex of that one straight off.
Should Libertarianism be Cultural Leftism without the State?
By Keith Preston
In recent years, an idea commonly described as thick libertarianism has emerged among some libertarians. This perspective holds that libertarianism requires a commitment to a broader set of values beyond that of mere individual liberty, or the “non-aggression principle,” in order to be substantive or sustainable. The “left-libertarian” writer and philosopher Charles Johnson is arguably the most prolific and articulate proponent of “thick libertarianism.” In a recently published and important article on this question, Johnson begins by asking the central questions that thick libertarians wish to address: Continue reading
by Thomas Knapp
One major problem with writing political commentary is that it’s often difficult look at something that seems … well, crazy … and find a rational explanation for it. It’s easier to just write off what looks like craziness as craziness and move on. But in the real world, there is in fact method to most people’s madness. This applies even to politicians who have apparently gone off their badly-needed psychiatric meds. Continue reading
A Brief Argument for English Independence
by Sean Gabb
The normal English response to Scottish nationalism is to ignore it, or to see it as an irritation, or to try shouting it down with reminders of all that shared history, or to point out the value of English subsidies and to wait for common sense to win the argument. None of these, I suggest, is an appropriate response. None takes into account that England and Scotland are different nations, and that the loudest and most energetic part of the Scottish nation has decided that the current union of the nations is not in Scottish interests. This does not make it inevitable that the union will be dissolved. It does, however, make this desirable. Scotland may or may not have suffered from the union. But the union has done much to bring England to the point of collapse, and it strikes me as reasonable to say that England can never be safe while there are Scottish members in the Westminster Parliament. Continue reading
Read all about it here. I’ll not need to explain to most of this readership who Nightjack was, but he was compulsive reading for a little while. Told you what to do about corrupt Stalinist goings-on in the Police, under the “New Labour” death-times, for one thing.
Note: I wrote this last year. But I have just heard that the Beeb is about to show a whole series of the new Upstairs Downstairs, complete with gay sex and an obsession with the Nazis. I don’t propose to watch any of these. I saw enough the Christmas before last. SIG Continue reading
I here want to promote to post-level a thing by Ian B who commented on our previous post about this very matter. Here he is, commenting on this previous:-
The question is whether political parties initiate change, or merely reflect it. I think the evidence is that at least in our corner of human society, they are reflections. So for me the real issue for Libertarians, or anyone else with political goals, is how to engineer paradigm shifts. The Proggies are very good at this, and we are not. I think one problem we have is the myth of the grass roots movement. Consider the difference between the rapid success of Progressive aligned movements such as feminism, greenism etc compared to the failure of, say, Euroscepticism despte it having a lot of support in the genpop.
The key element is surely influence within the small ruling class. Fabians succeed because they are influential among the elite. Eurosceptics fail because they are not. The voice of “the masses” is only heard when it is in tune with an influential elite movement. “…You will be handed a banner and told where to march from and to, little person…”
So I’m not really convinced that a political party can achieve very much. I admit I did join the LPUK initially, but then as is usual for such groups it descended into farce. There is no precedent for outsider organisations developing political power. The most successful is UKIP, and it is still marginally influential with derisory levels of voter support. The only major change in the Party system in history is the eclipse of the Liberals by Labour, but that happened because the authoritarian collectivist faction in the elite decided that a properly socialist party was required compared to the tepid liberals, and there was a readymade voter base in the then new Trades Union movement. Libertarianism has neither a representative elite faction (as I understand it Chris Tame hoped to create one via the LA) nor a block voter base; not least because Libertarianism has no political programme or even agreed outcomes. One cannot creep down the road to an unspecified location.
All I can really think to say is that what worked for the Left will not work for us. They cultivate an illusion of outsiders fighting elite power, but they are not that and never have been. They are an elite faction pretending to be the grass roots, entraining a mass movement behind them.
Us? We have no Fabians. That’s the problem. How to get some… I have no idea. But that in my view is the problem we need to address somehow.
Howard Gray thinks we might as well have a LPGB as not: I thnk I more or less agree, since the costs will be nugatory as nobody has any money anyway, and the marginal costs of setting up another one will always be less than the 10-Downing-Street budget for biscuits and coffee:-
Of course there should be a libertarian party for no other reason than for other libertarians to rail against its existence. The other reason is that it just might work in promoting libertarian ideas beyond the parish pump of the few web sites that we have out there. Is libertarianism garnering a whiff of smugness and parochialism which does little to promote it? Perhaps it is also suffused with pessimism and a sense of defeatism too in some quarters. If this is so, then the optimists are needed, let them create yet another Libertarian Party of Great Britain.
Building a political party is at least optimistic and if all it does is increase the presence of libertarians out there then that is a good thing is it not? Likely as not it will fail, but do you call what all the other parties that are out there doing a success? I don’t think so.
Isn’t politics a generational game? If so then perhaps those wedded to our time don’t see over the horizon so clearly and therefore feel all is lost and rather pointless. Opposing the formation of a libertarian party is a fair thing to do so long as it is only criticism and not negative activism. The prohibition might be good for those being subjected to its scorn as it will harden them and make them all the more adamant that success is something to go for.
Active libertarianism is good for all concerned within or without a libertarian political party. The measure of the success of a libertarian political party may be beyond our lifetimes so what is the good of preventing it? For most of us the possibility of its success does not appear all that likely but are we right about that? There is a good chance that we might be wrong.
by Hans-Hermann Hoppe
[A version of this was published in The Wall Street Journal
Europe, December 30, 1999.]
This year marks the 250th birthday of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Most Europeans know that he was the greatest of all German writers and poets and one of the giants of world literature. Less well known is that he was also a thorough-going classical liberal, arguing that free trade and free cultural exchange are the keys to authentic national welfare and peaceful international integration. He also argued and fought against the expansion, centralization, and unification of government on grounds that these trends can only hinder prosperity and true cultural development. Because of his relevance to the ongoing construction of Europe, I’d like to nominate Goethe as the European of the millennium. Continue reading
by Alexander Baron
Does Britain Need A Libertarian Party?
Does Britain need a Libertarian Party? I remember discussing this issue on several occasions with the late Chris Tame, and he was firmly against the idea. Having given it some considerable thought over the past few years I can say that I have come to agree with his view that under no circumstances should Libertarians consider forming a political party in Britain. I will add further that all Libertarian parties in other countries should disband forthwith and spend their money in ways that will effectively further the cause of liberty. Continue reading
by Sean Gabb
I see the Libertarian Party of the United Kingdom is back in business. Though we regard it as a total waste of time and money, I speak for the Executive Committee of the Libertarian Alliance in wishing it more success than it has so far managed. We also wish it much more stability of leadership and harmony in its internal management.
I am delighted to hear of the resignation of the former energy secretary, Chris Huhne, one of the most repulsive creatures in British politics. His allegedly “green” policies have already led to a large rise in fuel bills for all households. How is it right for the government to be adopting policies designed to push up our basic living costs? I cannot see that as anything other than an abuse of power. Continue reading
Note: Mr Blake’s opinion is that copyright should be for ever and ever and ever, and that biological and nuclear weapons should be used against any rogue state that decides otherwise. I am not so sure. SIG Continue reading
Yuri Modin was a KGB agent. He was the controller for ring of Soviet spies in England known as “the Cambridge Five.” The five include: Continue reading